BlockChain, Crypto

Bitcoin – A peer to peer electronic cash system

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How to solve double spending problem using peer to peer network

  • A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow online payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution.
  • Digital signatures provide part of the solution, but the main benefits are lost if a trusted third party is still required to prevent double-spending.
  • We can solve the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer network. The network timestamps transactions by hashing them into an ongoing chain of hash-based proof-of-work, forming a record that cannot be changed without redoing the proof-of-work.
  • The longest chain not only serves as proof of the sequence of events witnessed, but proof that it came from the largest pool of CPU power. As long as a majority of CPU power is controlled by nodes that are not cooperating to attack the network, they’ll generate the longest chain and outpace attackers.
  • Messages are broadcast on a best effort basis, and nodes can leave and rejoin the network at will, accepting the longest proof-of-work chain as proof of what happened while they were gone.

Problem that we are trying to solve

  • Commerce on the Internet has come to rely almost exclusively on financial institutions serving as trusted third parties to process electronic payments. While the system works well enough for most transactions, it still suffers from the inherent weaknesses of the trust based model.
  • Completely non-reversible transactions are not really possible, since financial institutions cannot avoid mediating disputes.
  • Merchants must be wary of their customers, hassling them for more information than they would otherwise need.
  • These costs and payment uncertainties can be avoided in person by using physical currency, but no mechanism exists to make payments over a communications channel without a trusted party

The need of a new electronic payment system

  • An electronic payment system based on cryptographic proof instead of trust allowing any two willing parties to transact directly with each other without the need for a trusted third party is needed.
  • Transactions that are computationally impractical to reverse would protect sellers from fraud, and routine escrow mechanisms could easily be implemented to protect buyers.
  • The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes.

How does the network work

  • New transactions are broadcast to all nodes.
  • Each node collects new transactions into a block.
  • Each node works on finding a difficult proof-of-work for its block.
  • When a node finds a proof-of-work, it broadcasts the block to all nodes.
  • Nodes accept the block only if all transactions in it are valid and not already spent.
  • Nodes express their acceptance of the block by working on creating the next block in thechain, using the hash of the accepted block as the previous hash.

Nodes always consider the longest chain to be the correct one and will keep working on
extending it. If two nodes broadcast different versions of the next block simultaneously, some
nodes may receive one or the other first. In that case, they work on the first one they received,
but save the other branch in case it becomes longer. The tie will be broken when the next proofof-work is found and one branch becomes longer; the nodes that were working on the other
branch will then switch to the longer one.

New transaction broadcasts do not necessarily need to reach all nodes. As long as they reach
many nodes, they will get into a block before long. Block broadcasts are also tolerant of dropped
messages. If a node does not receive a block, it will request it when it receives the next block and
realizes it missed one.

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